What is Lenalidomide Capsule?
Lenalidomide Capsule is used in the treatment of anemia (deficiency of red blood cells or of hemoglobin in the blood) in patients with a definite category of myelodysplastic syndrome. It is a group of disorders that impact a greater or lesser extent in the creation of normal blood cells in the bone marrow. In a nutshell, the bone marrow doesn’t make enough healthy mature blood cells. MDS is considered a type of cancer and may progress to life-threatening failure of the bone marrow or develop into acute leukemia. Based on a medical report, it is evident that 30 out of 100 MDS patients likely to develop AML. However with the great advancement and development in the research and medical industry, according to the current treatments, patients with lower-risk types of some MDS can live for 5 years or even longer.
Where to Buy Lenalidomide Capsule?
For these treatments, lenalidomide is very effective and used in the combination of dexamethasone to treat multiple myeloma (plasma cell cancer). Generally, this type of condition involves autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant to treat the cancerous cells. Even after this, Lenalidomide Capsule is used as a maintenance drug to withhold the condition. This drug is available in the form of a capsule and you can “buy lenalidomide online” after consulting with your health care specialist. You can buy generic Lenalidomide Capsules 45% OFF the lowest cost in USA, India, UK, Italy, Australia, Netherlands, Germany, France & Malaysia.
- The capsule should be taken as such, they are not supposed to be opened, fragmented, or chewed
- Lenalidomide Capsule is primarily excreted unchanged by the kidney. For senior citizens, the renal functionality slowly gets reduced, so utmost care should be taken in dose selection. Overdoses are fatal and every time the dose is administered care must be given to monitor the renal function
- You will require to monitor complete blood count every week for the first cycle (28 days), every fortnight during cycles 2-4, then monthly thereafter
- Treatment is prolonged or altered depending on medical reports and test results
- For Grade 3/4 neutropenia or thrombocytopenia, the dosage is subjected to change at times, so care must be taken to determine to modifications.
- Lenalidomide can turn fatal when given within 6 months of allogeneic stem cells. Therefore, for other Grade 3/4 the drugs cannot be immediately administered. Typically the treatment will be put on hold for a while and they will continue with next lower dose level when toxicity has resolved to ≤Grade 2
- However, for Grade 3 or 4 tumor flare reaction (TFR), it is highly suggested to hold back medication with lenalidomide until TFR lowers down to ≤Grade 1
- Patients probably have to withhold dose and/or lessening the dosage level
- Patients might need the use of blood countreportsfor tracking the developments.
Lenalidomide Capsules are an oral drug that is administered to the patients for the treatment of frontline, relapsed/refractory, and after vast developments in the genetics of the drug now lately used for continuous therapy post-autologous transplant for multiple myeloma. Lenalidomide Capsules are used to treat certain types of cancers namely
- Multiple myeloma – It is a type of cancer that forms in a type of white blood cell called a plasma cell. Plasma cells are the ones that generally helps you fight against infections by producing antibodies that recognize and attack germs. Chemo drugs used to treat multiple myeloma. On February 22, 2017, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a new use for the drug lenalidomide for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
- Mantle cell lymphoma-MCL
- They are also used in the also used to treat anemia in patients with certain blood/bone marrow disorders. Lenalidomide cost in India is comparatively less when compared to other countries.
Mechanism of Action:
- Immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and pomalidomide are artificial chemical derivatives obtained by transforming the chemical structure of thalidomide to enhance its vigor and lessen its side effects. This drug is clinically approved by FDA for the usage in myelodysplastic syndromes and for multiple myeloma. Clinical studies show that this drug is turned out to be immunomodulatory which alters the immune response or functioning of the immune system. Eventually, it affects the cellular and humoral limbs of the immune system.
- Deters cell propagation and induces characteristic cell changes or apoptosis of tumor cells. This drug has the potential to cause a delay in tumor growth. It is in combination with dexamethasone hinder and prevent cell multiplication and induce programmed cell death in a controlled manner in myeloma cells.
- Although treatment with lenalidomide has interpreted into a substantial theory in general survival in MM and MDS and has increase protection and welfare relative to thalidomide, the mechanism of action when it comes to immune modulation, lenalidomide remains abstract. In addition to the specific effects of lenalidomide on T-cell signaling, the clinical reports and tests have proven that the drug modifies the homeostatic regulation of T cells.
- Studies have proven that lenalidomide probably functions through various mechanisms in diverse hematologic malignancies. They involve both direct toxicity as well as have indirect effects on tumor immunity.
Lenalidomide Capsule Side Effects:
Although the drug shows an increase in immune activation and found effective in the decrease in tumor burden in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (in which the bone marrow makes too many lymphocytes), the ability of the drug has not been ultimately shown to be mediated by a direct cytotoxic effect of T cells against the malignant B-cells.
Lenalidomide has reduced the occurrence of adverse effects namely sedation, constipation, and neuropathy than thalidomide. Lenalidomide is generally very well tolerated and their most eminent side effect is myelosuppression.
The following side effects are generally noticed:
- Low Blood Counts -Having bone marrow suppression can cause low blood cell counts. They are generally referred to as cytopenia. A typical symptom of bone marrow failure.
- Increased Mortality in Patients with CLL– The survival rate for people with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia differs broadly according to the stage of the disease. Based on clinical studies, during the first course of treatment, lenalidomide has an increased risk of mortality rates when compared to the single agent chlorambucil. For many years, chlorambucil has been the mainstay of treatment for CLL.
- Second Primary Malignancies (SPM) – Perhaps, this has become an important issue in myeloma management. Patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) are generally at higher risk for the growth of a second primary malignancy. It occurs in parallel with or after the diagnosis of an index tumor. In clinical trials, lenalidomide has an increased risk of hematologic plus solid tumor SPM.
- Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS)- It is a constellation of metabolic disturbances, a group of problems with blood levels, including increased range of uric acid, potassium, phosphate and reduced level of calcium. The syndrome is really fatal and the condition has to be monitored closely in order to take suitable precautions.
- Early Mortality in Patients with MCL: Treatment of patients with MCL whose disease has relapsed or progressed after two prior has shown that, the patients who were administered met with early deaths within 20 weeks.
Warning: Adverse Reactions
- Myelodysplastic Syndromes
- Grade 3 and 4 adverse events reported in more than five percent of patients.
Some of the common warning that is noticed in most patients are
- EMBRYO-FETAL TOXICITY– It is an adverse effect on the development of the virus or bacterial infection resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals present in the drug before conception, during prenatal development, or post-natally until puberty. Hence this drug is not recommended to use during pregnancy. According to the development of a monkey study, it causes limb abnormalities in the fetus and results in severe human birth effects(deformed babies) and in the worst case scenario also ends up with the death of an unborn baby(embryo-fetal death). Similarly, females of reproductive potential should stay away from heterosexual sex during the lenalidomide treatment. In addition, they should abstain from sex for another 4 weeks after treatment.
- HEMATOLOGIC TOXICITY – Lenalidomide causes significant abnormality in the low number of neutrophils (life-threatening infection) and a low blood platelet count. Patients who have already suffer from anemic conditions are generally recommended to delay the treatment until the blood count level hits normally. Medical study shows that 80% of the patients are found to have hematologic toxicity problems when the therapy was started without considering the blood count level. However, delayed doses improved the number significantly and only 34 percent suffered from these side effects. These patients had a really poor platelet count.
- VENOUS and ARTERIAL THROMBOEMBOLISM– Lenalidomide has proven a notably augmented risk of deep vein thrombosis (when a blood clot (thrombus) forms in one or more of the deep veins in your body, usually in your legs) and pulmonary embolism (sudden blockage of a major blood vessel (artery) in the lung). There are also increased dangers of myocardial infections resulting in stokes or paralysis in patients. When the sign and symptoms of any of the infections are found, immediate attention has to be taken to avoid fatal problems.
- Increased Mortality in Patients with Pembrolizumab– The key synthetic compound used in combination with lenalidomide is dexamethasone is usually associated with an increased risk of death in patients. Treatment of these patients with a PD-1 or PD-L1 jamming antibody in this arrangement is not acclaimed external of precisemedicalstudies.
Lenalidomide Capsule Brand in India:
Medindia’s drug directory has currently 3 Brands of Lenalidomide listed. They are Lenalidomide, supplied by Natco Pharma Limited, an Indian integrated pharmaceutical company based in Hyderabad, Telangana, focused on research and development of drugs. The brand name of lenalidomide is Revlimid cost and they fall under the miscellaneous antineoplastic and other immunosuppressant drug classes. They are majorly used in the treatment of a wide range of diseases associated with cancer such as Lymphoma, Mantle Cell Lymphoma, Multiple Myeloma, and Myelodysplastic Diseases.
To Sum it up:
It is generally recommended that you need to consult with your health care professional about your specific medical condition and treatments. The information contained in this article is meant to provide some useful information about the drug and for educational purposes, so, please don’t treat this as a substitute for medical advice.